1. Alder (alnus glutinosa)
Family - Betulaceae (Birch Family)
– Astringent used as a wound wash and healing agent on deep wounds. Leaf and bark teas are used to treat tonsillitis, fever, as
a douche, and for hemorrhoids.
-The fresh bark will cause vomiting, so use dried bark for all but emetic purposes. A decoction of the dried bark is used to bathe swellings and
inflammations, especially of the mouth and throat.
The powdered bark and the leaves have been used as an internal astringent and tonic, whilst the bark has also been used as an internal
and external haemostatic against haemorrhage. The dried bark of young twigs are used, or the inner bark of branches 2 - 3 years old. It is harvested in the spring and dried for later use.
Boiling the inner bark in vinegar produces a useful wash to treat lice and a range of skin problems such as scabies and scabs. The liquid can also be used as a toothwash. The leaves are astringent, galactogogue and vermifuge.
They are used to help reduce breast engorgement in nursing mothers. A decoction of the leaves is used in folk remedies for treating cancer of the breast, duodenum, oesophagus, face, pylorus,
pancreas, rectum, throat, tongue, and uterus. The leaves are harvested in the summer and used fresh.
2. Apple (Malus domestica)
Family - Rosaceae (Rose Family)
– Tree bark is used to treat fevers and diarrhea. Stewed apples can be used as a laxative. Baked apples are great as a warm poultice
for fevers and sore throat. Apple cider helps destroy intestinal flora and decrease bacteria flowing to the bowels.
The fruit is astringent and laxative. The bark, and especially
the root bark, is anthelmintic, refrigerant and soporific.
An infusion is used in the treatment of intermittent, remittent and bilious fevers. The leaves contain up to 2.4% of an
antibacterial substance called "phloretin". This inhibits the growth of a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in as low a concentration as 30 ppm.
raw apple is one of the easiest foods for the stomach to deal with, the whole process of digestion taking about 85 minutes. The apple juice will reduce the acidity of the stomach, it becomes changed into alkaline carbonates and thus corrects sour fermentation.
The apple is also an excellent dentifrice, the mechanical action of eating a fruit serving to clean both the teeth and the gums.
3. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior)
Family - Oleaceae (Olive Family)
Black-budded stems are identifiers of the Ash tree.
– Twig tips and leaves turned into a tea help reduce rheumatism, jaundice and
The leaves are astringent, cathartic, diaphoretic, mildly diuretic, laxative and purgative. The have been used as a laxative, making a mild substitute for senna pods.
The leaves should be gathered in June, well dried and stored in airtight containers.
The bark is antiperiodic, astringent
and a bitter tonic. Little used in modern herbalism, it is occasionally taken in the treatment of fevers.
The seeds, including their wings, have been used as a carminative.
They will store for 12 months if gathered when ripe.
4. Beech (Fagus sylvatica)
–Fagaceae (Beech Family)
– Bark tea from this tree will help treat lung problems and was once used in tuberculosis treatments.
It is also used to help cleanse the blood.
Beech tea is not recommended for pregnant women. Leaf tea is used in poultices to
treat frostbite and burns.
Silver Birch (Betula pendula)
Family - Betulaceae (Birch Family)
– Leaf tea helps heal sores in the mouth and helps heal bladder and kidney problems, and gout. Use bark in a
bath to aid psoriasis, skin rashes and eczema.
Birch sap contains betulinic acid, which is used to help reduce tumors and fight cancer.
Anti-inflammatory, cholagogue, diaphoretic.
The bark is diuretic and laxative. An oil obtained from the inner bark is astringent and is used in the treatment
of various skin afflictions, especially eczema and psoriasis. The bark is usually obtained from trees that have been felled for timber and can be distilled at any time of the year.
inner bark is bitter and astringent, it is used in treating intermittent fevers. The vernal sap is diuretic.
The buds are balsamic.
The young shoots and leaves secrete a resinous substance which has acid properties, when combined with alkalis it is a tonic laxative.
are anticholesterolemic and diuretic. They also contain phytosides, which are effective germicides. An infusion of the leaves is used in the treatment of gout, dropsy and rheumatism, and is recommended as a reliable solvent of kidney stones. The young
leaves and leaf buds are harvested in the spring and dried for later use.
A decoction of the leaves and bark is used for bathing skin eruptions. Moxa is made from the yellow
fungous excrescences of the wood, which sometimes swell out of the fissures.
6. Cedar (Thuja plicata)
Family – Cupressaceae (Cypress Family)
– Bark tea is used to treat fevers, rheumatism, the flu and chest
Western red cedar was employed medicinally by a number of native North American Indian tribes, who used it to treat a wide range of complaints. It is seldom, if ever,
used in modern herbalism.
An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of stomach pains and diarrhoea. A decoction of the leaves has been used in the treatment of
colds. A decoction of the powdered leaves has been used externally to treat various internal pains, including rheumatism.
The leaf buds have been chewed in the treatment of toothaches
and sore lungs. A decoction of the buds has been used as a gargle.
A decoction of the small branches has been used in the treatment of coughs, colds and tuberculosis.
A weak infusion has been drunk in the treatment of painful joints caused by rheumatism or arthritis. A poultice of the crushed bough tips and oil has been applied to the back and chest in the treatment of bronchitis, rheumatism, stomach pains and
swollen neck. An infusion of the twigs has been used as a wash in the treatment of venereal disease sores. A decoction of the boughs has been used as an antidandruff shampoo. A decoction of the stem tips and the roots has been used in the treatment
An infusion of the bark and twigs has been used in the treatment of kidney complaints.
of the seeds and twigs has been used in the treatment of fevers.
The chewed bark, or a decoction of the bark, has been drunk to induce menstruation. A moxa of the inner
bark has been used as a counter-irritant for the skin. A poultice of the inner bark has been applied to carbuncles.
The bark has been pounded until it is as soft as cotton
and then used to rub the face. The very soft bark has been used to bind wounds and cover dressings.
The shredded bark has been used to cauterize sores and swellings.
7. Elder (Sambucus wightiana)
Family – Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family)
– Bark tea is used to treat headaches, for congestion, and to lower fever by inducing perspiration.
The plant has medicinal qualities. No further details are given but these are the medicinal properties of the closely related S. ebulus:- The leaves are antiphlogistic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant and laxative. The
fruit is also sometimes used, but it is less active than the leaves. The herb is commonly used in the treatment of liver and kidney complaints. When bruised and laid on boils and scalds, they have a healing effect. They can be made into a poultice
for treating swellings and contusions. The leaves are harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use.
The root is diaphoretic, mildly diuretic and a drastic purgative.
Dried, then powdered and made into a tea, it is considered to be one of the best remedies for dropsy.
It should only be used with expert supervision because it can cause nausea
and vertigo. A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh berries or the bark. It is used in the treatment of dropsy.
Hazards: Although no specific mention
has been seen for this species, the leaves and stems of some, if not all, members of this genus are poisonous. The fruit of many species (although no records have been seen for this species) has been known to cause stomach upsets to some people. Any toxin
the fruit might contain is liable to be of very low toxicity and is destroyed when the fruit is cooked.
Elm (Nettle tree) (Celtis australis)
Family - Ulmaceae (Elm Family)
– Bark salve and poultices are used to treat gunshot wounds, chilblain, and on the abdomen to draw out fever. Bark tea is very high in calcium and helps increase the healing of injured bones, heal sore throats, soothe urinary and bowel issues,
and to thwart diarrhea.
The leaves and fruit are astringent, lenitive and stomachic. The leaves are gathered in early summer and dried for later use.
The fruit, particularly before it is fully ripe, is considered to be more effective medicinally.
A decoction of both leaves and fruit is
used in the treatment of amenorrhoea, heavy menstrual and intermenstrual bleeding and colic.
The decoction can also be used to astringe the mucous membranes in the treatment of diarrhoea,
dysentery and peptic ulcers.
9. Hawthorne (Crataegus monogyna)
Family - Rosaceae (Rose Family)
– Leaf tea is brewed as a “cardiac tonic” but extended use is known to cause a drop in blood pressure.
It is recommended to use it for just two weeks and then take a week off before starting the treatment again.
- Hawthorn is an extremely valuable medicinal
herb. It is used mainly for treating disorders of the heart and circulation system, especially angina. Western herbalists consider it a "food for the heart", it increases the blood flow to the heart muscles and restores normal heart beat. This effect
is brought about by the presence of bioflavonoids in the fruit, these bioflavonoids are also strongly antioxidant, helping to prevent or reduce degeneration of the blood vessels. The fruit is antispasmodic, cardiac, diuretic, sedative, tonic and vasodilator.
- Both the fruits and flowers of hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and
flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure, they are also used to treat a heart muscle weakened by age,
for inflammation of the heart muscle, arteriosclerosis and for nervous heart problems. Prolonged use is necessary for the treatment to be efficacious.
It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture. Hawthorn is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) to enhance poor memory, working by improving the blood supply to the brain.
- The bark is astringent and has been used in the treatment of malaria and other fevers.
- The roots are said to
stimulate the arteries of the heart.
Acer rubrum = Red Maple
Family - Aceraceae (Maple Family)
The typical winged seed pods of Maple trees
– A leaf wound wash or poultice
is used to relieve sore eyes and soreness of the breasts for nursing mothers and pregnant women. Bark tea is used to treat kidney infections, the common cold and bronchitis.
has astringent properties and has been used as an application for sore eyes. The inner bark was used according to one report. An infusion of the bark has been used to treat cramps and dysentery.